A Guide to Research and Related Literature

A Guide to Research and Related Literature

on Models of Teaching


Bruce Joyce and Emily Calhoun

brucejoyce40@gmail.com    efcphoenix@aol.com


We have developed this partially-annotated bibliography to connect readers to the research and related literature that are directly relevant to models of teaching. A companion bibliography provides important items on school improvement, philosophical orientations toward education, teaching and teachers, professional learning and development, and the literacy, science, and social studies curriculum areas that are emphasized in the new state core curriculums. For many items we provide notes to assist readers in orienting themselves to the various literatures and making their beginning inquiries in productive avenues. The bibliography is presented in five sections:

This bibliography includes the references cited in Models of Teaching and other items that are important in the development and use of the various models. These are presented in the order of the chapters in the book. This section is not a meta-analysis of the research on models of teaching. However,  research on all of the models has been referenced as well as a number of comprehensive meta-analyses of the research on particular models and families of models.

Table of Contents


4        Part I  — Models of Teaching: A Working Professional Repertoire

4        On Constructivist Philosophy, Psychology, and Practice

5        Part II —  The Basic Information-Processing Models

7        Chapters Three and Four — Inductive Thinking

           and Scientific Inquiry

11      Chapter Five — The Picture-Word Inductive Model

12      Literacy

12      On the Teaching of Reading

16      On Early Childhood Education

17      Part III — Special Purpose Information-Processing Models

17      Chapter Six — On Concept Attainment Models

18      Chapter Seven — On Synectics and Creative Thinking

19      Chapter Eight – On Memnonics

21      Chapter Nine – On Advance Organizers

24      Chapter Ten – On Inquiry Training

24      Part IV – On Social Models

24      On Organizational Development

26      Chapter Eleven – Partners in Learning Positive Interdependence

28      Chapter Twelve – Group Investigation

30      Chapter Thirteen – Studying Values through Role Playing

31      Part V – Personal Models

32      Chapter Fourteen — Nondirective Teaching

33      Chapter Fifteen – The Inner Person of Boys and Girls

34      Part VI — On Behavioral Models (Part IV)

36      Chapter Sixteen – The Explicit Teaching of Comprehension and                        Composing

37      Reciprocal Teaching

37      Chapter Seventeen – Mastery Learning

39      Chapter Eighteen – Direct Instruction

39      On Disadvantaged Students

40      On Simulation

41      Part VII —  The Conditions of Learning, Conceptual Development

          and the Optimal Mismatch

43      Chapter Nineteen – Creating Curriculums: The Conditions of                                       Learning

44      Chapter Twenty — Expanding our Horizons: Making Discomfort Productive


Part I  — Models of Teaching: A Working Professional Repertoire


All the selected models have a constructivist organization, provide scaffolding support for students, and help students build their capacity for learning, solving problems, and learning citizenship through cooperation with peers and adults. We begin with some thoughtful books and articles on how to make the construction of knowledge pervasive. The items here pertain to Chapters One and Two which themselves are a guide to the developers of the various models.

          On Constructivist Philosophy, Psychology, and Practice


Brooks, J. G., & Brooks, M. G. (1993). The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

This is a really good discussion and it is particularly useful because constructivism is frequently discussed as if it leads to one teaching strategy, whereas the Brookes deal with it at the classroom, curriculum, and multiple models of teaching levels.


Downey, L. (1967). The secondary phase of education. Boston: Gin and Co.

A solid older book that suggests that schools teach through what they teach, how they teach, and the kind of place they are.


Bereiter, C. (1984). Constructivism, socioculturalism, and Popper’s World. Educational Researcher, 23 (7), 21-23.

These three papers by Carl Bereiter deal incisively with the discussions about constructivism. Vygotsky is often cited as if his perspective is proven from long lines of research leading to a particular model of teaching. Bereiter is positive but cautionary about such a glossy interpretation, particularly that the constructivist orientation leads to only one approach to teaching.


Bereiter, C. (1997). Situated cognition and how to overcome it. in Kirshner, D. & Whitson, W., eds. Situated Cognition: Social, Semiotic, and Psychological Perspectives. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. 281-300.


Bereiter, C. (1984b). How to keep thinking skills from going the way of all frills. Educational Leadership, 42,(1), 1.


Rolheiser-Bennett, C. (1986). Four models of teaching: A meta-analysis of student outcomes. Ph.D. thesis, University of Oregon.


Part II —  The Basic Information-Processing Models


Almy, M. (1970). Logical thinking in second grade. New York: Teachers College Press.

A classic study where the academic reform movement curriculums were combined with effects on cognitive development in the second grade. Moves the question from “what have they learned” to “how much have they grown intellectually.”


The next five citations provide a gateway to the evaluations of the first phase of the academic reform movement.


Anderson, R. (1983)  A Consolidation and Appraisal of Science Meta-Analyses. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20 (5), 497-509.

Anderson pulled together the large body of research that contained convincing evidence of the advantages of inquiry-based, scientific structure-organized approaches.


Anderson, R.,Kahl, S., Glass, G., Smith M., & Malone, M. (1982). Science meta-analysis project. Boulder, Colorado: Laboratory for research in Science and Mathematics Education. University of Colorado. 797 pages.

The exemplary meta-analysis of the research and evaluation studies of the first phase of the academic reform movement.


Bredderman, T. (1983). Effects of activity-based elementary science on student outcomes: A quantitative synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 53 (4),499-518.

Bredderman pulled together the considerable quantity of research and evaluation studies that compare inquiry-oriented science-teaching with coverage-oriented curriculums.


Minner, D., Levy, A. & Century, J. (2009). Inquiry-Based Science Instruction – What is it and does it matter? Results from a Research Synthesis Years 1984-2002. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47 (4), 474-496.


Shymansky, J., Kyle, W. & Alport, J. (1983). The effects of new science curricula on student performance. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20 (5), 387-404.

(105 studies, 1000 classrooms, 150,000 students.)


National Research Council (2012). A Framework for K-12 Science Education Practices, Crosscutting Ideas, and Core Ideas. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

One of the base documents in the movement for the new state core curriculums.


Hillocks, G. (1987). Synthesis of research on teaching writing. Educational Leadership, 44(8), 71–82.

A massive review. The result is convincing evidence that that inductive/inquiry approaches to the teaching of writing produce better results in quality of writing – including workmanship – than do the common practices of presenting and enforcing rules. Another finding is that there needs to be a lot of practice. Sporadic practice or just generating a few long papers in a year is just insufficient. Daily writing is preferred.


Worthen, B. (1968). A study of discovery and expository presentation: Implications for teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 19, 223–242.

An early and beautifully designed study that clearly indicated the advantage of involving the students in investigations. As it was being published the curriculums designed around the methods and structures of the disciplines were being implemented and their large effects on student learning were being documented.


Chapters Three and Four — Inductive Thinking and Scientific Inquiry


Section Three  in this bibliography is devoted to inductive thinking and scientific inquiry. Here are some other important items.


Adey, P., & Shayer, M. (1990). Accelerating the development of formal thinking in middle and high school students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27(3), 267–285.A nice study. Philip Adey is one of England’s best investigators in both science curriculum and instruction and professional development. Here he and his colleague focus on developing intellectual capacity.


Elementary Science Study (ESS). (1971). Batteries and bulbs: An electrical suggestion book. New York: Webster-McGraw-Hill.

This is an example of the many resources available to schools and teachers.


El-Nemr, M. A. (1979). Meta-analysis of the outcomes of teaching biology as inquiry. A doctoral thesis. Boulder: University of Colorado.


de Jong, T., and van Joolingen, W. (1998). Scientific discovery learning with computer simulations of conceptual domains. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 179–201.

An outstanding study. Although computer simulations have been around since the mid-1960’s, This was the period of a great deal of new development. Overall, the virtual has great promise, but needs to be grounded in REAL investigations by the students.


Wade, N. (2002, June 18). Scientist at work/Kari Stefansson: Hunting for disease genes in Iceland’s genealogies. The New York Times, p. 4.

We use this as a stimulus to inquiry for secondary students.


White, B. Y. (1993). Thinker Tools: Causal models, conceptual change, and science education. Cognition and Instruction, 10(1), 1–100.

A nice review focusing on the improvement of intellectual capacity through inductive curriculums and teaching.

          Science Education

Karplus, R. (1964). Theoretical background of the science curriculum improvement study. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Kuhn, D., Amsel, E., & O’Loughlin, M. (1988). The development of scientific thinking skills. New York: Academic Press.

Metz, K. E. (1995). Reassessment of developmental constraints on children’s science instruction. Review of Educational Research, 65(2), 93–127.

Schaubel, L., Klopfer, L. E., & Raghavan, K. (1991). Students’ transition from an engineering model to a science model of experimentation. Journal of Research on Science Teaching, 28(9), 859–882.

Schwab, J. (1965). Biological sciences curriculum study: Biology teachers’ handbook. New York: Wiley.

Schwab, J. (1982). Science, curriculum, and liberal education: Selected essays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Schwab, J., & Brandwein, P. (1962). The teaching of science. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

          Social Studies/Social Science Education

Staver, J. (1989). A summary of research in science education. Science Education, 70(3), 245–341.

Kenworthy, L. S. (1955). Introducing children to the world. New York: Harper.

Lippitt, R., Fox, R., & Schaible, L. (1969a). Cause and effect: Social science resource book. Chicago: Science Research Associates.

Lippitt, R., Fox, R., & Schaible, L. (1969b). Social science laboratory units. Chicago: Science Research Associates.

McKinney, C., Warren, A., Larkins, G., Ford, M. J., & Davis, J. C. III. (1983). The effectiveness of three methods of teaching social studies concepts to fourth-grade students: An aptitude-treatment interaction study. American Educational Research Journal, 20, 663–670.

Shaver, J. P. (1995). Social studies. In G. Cawelti (Ed.), Handbook of research on improving student achievement. Arlington, Va.: Educational Research Service.

Shaver, J. P., & Strong, W. (1982). ­Facing value-decisions: Rationale-building for teachers. New York: Teachers College Press.

Taba, H. (1966). Teaching strategies and cognitive functioning in elementary school children. (Cooperative Research Project 2404.) San Francisco: San Francisco State College.

Taba, H. (1967). Teacher’s handbook for elementary school social studies. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.


Chapter Five — The Picture-Word Inductive Model


In Section Three the treatment of  literacy education provides a wide variety of sources on the kind of scholarship that provides the basis for this model. Here are a few basic ones.

Calhoun, E. (1999).  Teaching Beginning Reading and Writing with the Picture Word Inductive Model. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

This is the core reference.


Kidron, M., & Segal, R. (2001). The state of the world atlas. New York: Simon & Schuster Touchstone.


Wood, K., & Tinajero, J. (2002, May). Using pictures to teach content to second language learners. Middle School Journal, 33(2) 47–51.

A fine adaptation to solve a perennial problem. Fits with our work with Spanish/English bilingual, French Immersion, and French/English bilingual applications.


        Literacy Education


These citations open several of the avenues of research on which the model rests. Explicit instruction in reading comprehension and composing has its own section (Chapter Sixteen).


Carroll, J. B. (1964).  Language and thought. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

A foundational piece. For practice, supports the idea that both reading and writing are thought processes and need to be taught as thinking and problem-solving rather than a matrix of tiny skills.


          On the teaching of Reading


Allington, R.,au/ed (2002).  Big Brother and the National Reading Curriculum. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann.

A serious criticism of the administration’s packing the panel with phonics advocates and ignoring other frames of reference, experience, research, and scholars of reading.


Applebee, A., Langer, J., Jenkins, L., Mullis, I., & Foertsch, M. (1990).  Learning to write in our nation’s schools. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education.

A thorough report on the National Assessment of Educational progress.

As we read it, there is very little progress from grade to grade. For example, the mean quality of writing score for the eighth grade is only about at the 60th percentile of the fourth grade. If the new core curriculum in literacy is implemented, this sorry picture should be turned inside out. We know how to teach writing well. The issue is a matter of will and the development of adequate professional learning opportunities.


Burns, S., Griffin, P., & Snow, C. (1998). Starting out right. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

A complex review of language arts curriculum, K-2. Still hangs on to the idea that five year old children are not ready to read. Ignores information such as UK five year old students learn to read and somewhat better than six and 6 ½ year-old first grade students in the U.S.


Calhoun, E. (1997). Literacy for all. Saint Simons Island, Ga.: The Phoenix ­ Alliance.

A thoroughgoing review of successful practices.


Calhoun, E. (1998).  Literacy for the primary grades: What works, for whom, and to what degree. Saint Simons Island, Ga.: The Phoenix Alliance.

Another thorough review. A complete guide to the literature. As of its date.


Cambourne, B. (2002). Holistic, integrated approaches to reading and language arts instruction: In A. Farstrup & J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction. Newark, Del.: International Reading Instruction.

An approach to curriculum and instruction developed on a constructivist framework


Chall, J. S. (1983).  Stages of reading development. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chall has been a major figure since her book on The Great Debate discussed the “synthetic phonics” approaches and compared them to experience-based inductive approaches. She knows the literature on reading but not on curriculum and models of teaching, which lack affects her views,


Cunningham, J. (2002). The national reading panel report. In Allington, R. (2002), 49-75.

A devastating condemnation of inept government action.


Daane, M., Campbell, J., Grigg, W., Goodman, M., & Oranje, A. (2005). The Nation’s Report Card. Washington: National Center for Educational Statistics.

One of the first indications that No Child Left Behind was not making a difference. However, multiple-choice norm-referenced tests, which the national center prefers, is a questionable device for their purpose. Performance-based tests would make more sense.


Durkin, D. (1966). Children Who Read Early. New York: Teachers College Press.

A very thoughtful analysis. Clearheadedly and matter-of-factly destroys the notion that five year-old children are not ready to learn to read and depicts the advantages given to those who do. (see, our recent studies of the effects of teaching kindergarten students to read with the PWIM model.


Flesch, R. (1955). Why Johnny can’t read. New York: Harper Brothers.

Rudolf Flesch was a strident voice in the trumped-up charge that schools neglected phonics. His book Why Ivan Can Read capitalized on the cold war and the fears aroused by the ascent of Sputnik. The national panel echoed him and ignored contradictory evidence.


Garan, E. (2005). Murder your darlings: A scientific response to the voice of evidence in reading research. Phi Delta Kappan. Volume 86, Number 6, pp. 438-443.

Another blast at the national reading panel.


Gunning, T. (1998). Best books for beginning readers. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

The developer of a really good system for assessing progress by using trade books, categorizing them by complexity, and observing which levels the children can read with full comprehension.


Hillocks, G. (1987). Synthesis of research on teaching writing. Educational Leadership, 44(8), 71–82


McGill-Franzen, A. (2001). In Neuman, S. & Dickinson, D., eds. Handbook of Early Literacy Research, Chapter 30, pp. 471-483. New York: Guilford Press.


McGill- Franzen, A., Allington, R., Yokoi, I., & Brooks, G. (1999). Putting books in the room seems necessary but not sufficient. Journal of Educational Research, 93, 67-74.


McGill-Franzen, A., & Allington, R. (1991). The gridlock of low achievement. Remedial and Special Education, 12, 20–30.


McGill-Franzen, A., & Goatley, V. (2001). Title I and special education: Support for children who struggle to learn to read. In S. Neuman & D. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 471–484). New York: Guilford.


McGill-Franzen, A., Lanford, C., & Killian, J. (undated). Case studies of literature-based textbook use in kindergarten. Albany: State University of New York.


Nagy, W., & Anderson, R. (1984). How many words are there in printed English? Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 304–330.

Nagy, W., Herman, P., & Anderson, R. (1985). Learning words from context. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 233–253.


Nagy, W. & Anderson, P. (1987). Breadth and depth in vocabulary knowledge. Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 304-330.


Neuman, S., & Dickinson, D., eds. (2001). Handbook of early literacy research. New York: Guilford Press.


New Standards Primary Literacy Committee. (1999). Reading and writing: Grade by grade. Pittsburgh, Penn.: National Center on Education and the Economy and the University of Pittsburgh.


PBS Teacherline. (2005). An Introduction to Underlying Principles and Research for Effective Literacy Instruction. PBS Electronic Catalog. Washington, D.C.: PBS.


Piksulski, J., with Taylor, B. (1999). Emergent literacy survey/K–2. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.



          On Early Childhood Education


Anderson, H., & Brewer, H. (1939). Domination and social integration in the behavior of kindergarten children and teachers. Genetic Psychology Monograph, 21, 287–385.

This classic study began the era of the formal study of teaching practices and their effects on students.


Elkind, David. (1987). Miseducation: Preschoolers at Risk. New York: Knopf.


Hanson, R., & Farrell, D. (1995). The long-term effects on high school seniors of learning to read in kindergarten. Reading Research Quarterly, 30(4), 908–933.

International Reading Association and the National Association for the Education of Young Children. (1998). Position statement on learning to read and write: Developmentally appropriate practices for young children. Newark, Del.: International Reading Association.


Joyce, B., Calhoun, E., & Hrycauk, M. (2003). Learning to read in kindergarten. Phi Delta Kappan, 85,2, 126-132.


Natale, J. (2001). Early learners: Are full day academic kindergartens too much, too soon. American School Board Journal. 188,3, 22-25.


Walston, J. & West, J. (2004). Full-day and Half-Day Kindergarten in the United States. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.


Weikart, D., et al. (1971). The cognitively oriented curriculum: A framework for pre-school teachers. Washington, D.C.: National Association for Education of Young Children.

Weikart and his colleagues ran upstream against the doctrine that young children aren’t developmentally ready for complex instruction.

Xue, Y., & Meisels, S. (2004). Early literacy instruction and learning in kindergarten. American Educational Research Journal, 41,(1),191-229/

Special Purpose Information-Processing Models Part III


Chapter Six — On Concept Attainment Models


There are other good studies on concept learning, but Baveja’s research, done in India, is exemplary. Long-term retention of concepts was, for students taught with a combination of inductive and concept attainment strategies, nearly eight times that of students taught with a lecture cum illustration method.


Baveja, B. (1988). An exploratory study of the use of information-processing models of teaching in secondary school biology science classes. Doctoral dissertation. Delhi, India: Delhi University.


Baveja, B., Showers, B., & Joyce, B. (1985). An experiment in conceptually based teaching strategies. Saint Simons Island, GA: Booksend Laboratories.


Bruner, J., Goodnow, J. J., & Austin, G. A. (1967). A study of thinking. New York: Science Edition.

The seminal studies on concept attainment.


Merrill, M. D., & Tennyson, R. D. (1977). Concept teaching: An instructional design guide. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology.


Tennyson, R. D., & Cocchiarella, M. (1986). An empirically based instructional design theory for teaching concepts. Review of Educational Research, 56, 40–71. Programmatic ressearch on concept attainment.

Chapter Seven – Synectics and Creative Thinking

The ideas and studies here are interesting and incisive, Bill Gordon put it all together to create Synectics, plucking creativity from the world of magic and making aspects of it eminently teachable.


Gordon, W. J. J. (1961a). Synectics. New York: Harper & Row.


Baer, J. (1993). Creativity and divergent thinking. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.


Barron, F. (1963). Creativity and psychological health: Origins of personal vitality and creative freedom. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand.

Kandra, C. (2009). Synectics. www.about.com/psychology

Glynn, S. M. (1994). Teaching science with analogies. Athens: National Reading Research Center, University of Georgia.


Keyes, Dixie K. “Metaphorical Voices: Secondary Student’s Exploration into Multidimensional Perspectives in Literature and Creative Writing Using the Synectics Model.” Unpublished Doctor of Education Dissertation, University of Houston,


McCarthy, B. (1981). The 4mat system: Teaching to learning styles with right/left mode techniques. Barrington, Ill.: Excel.


Newby, T. J., & Ertner, P. A. (1994). Instructional analogies and the learning of concepts. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.


Pany, S. (2010). Effectiveness of the Synectics model of teaching ion enhancing creativity, academic achievement, and achievement motivation of learners. Ejournal of All India Association for Educational Research. Retrieved from www.aiaer.net/ejournal/vol.2010/108/11.htm


Perkins, D. N. (1984). Creativity by design. Educational Leadership, 42(1), 18–25.


Sanders, D. A., & Sanders, J. A. (1984). Teaching creativity through metaphor. New York: Longman.


Seligman, E. (2007)Reaching Students through Synectics: A Creative Solution. Thesis. University of Northern Colorado.

A thoughtful study of involvement enhancement through synectics.


Taylor, C. (Ed.). (1964). Creativity: Progress and potential. New York: McGraw-Hill.


Torrance, E.  (1962). Guiding creative talent. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.


Torrance, E. P. (1965). Gifted children in the classroom. New York: Macmillan.


Wertheimer, M. (1945). Productive thinking. New York: Harper.

A classic. Provided important concepts to balance those provided by the large community devoted to the measurement of academic ability.


Chapter Eight — Mnemonics

Levin, J. R., McCormick, C., Miller, H., & Berry, J. (1982). Mnemonic versus nonmnemonic strategies for children. American Educational Research Journal, 19(1), 121–136.

Levin, J. R., Shriberg, L., & Berry, J. (1983). A concrete strategy for remembering abstract prose. American Educational Research Journal, 20(2), 277–290.

Levin, M. E., & Levin, J. R. (1990). Scientific mnemonics: Methods for maximizing more than memory. American Educational Research Journal, 27, 301–321.

Lorayne, H., & Lucas, J. (1974). The memory book. Briercliff Manor, N.Y.: Lucas Educational Systems.

Lucas, J. (2001). Learning how to learn. Frisco, Tex.: Lucas Educational Systems.

Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1991). Teaching students ways to remember. Cambridge, Mass.: Brookline Books.

Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1994). A practical guide for teaching science to students with special needs in inclusive settings Austin, Tex.: Pro-Ed.

Millar, G. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity to process information. Psychological Review, 63, 81–87.

Pressley, M. (1977). Children’s use of the keyword method to learn simple Spanish vocabulary words. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69(5), 465–472.

Pressley, M. (1995). Cognitive strategy instruction that really improves student performance. Cambridge, Mass: Brookline.

Pressley, M. (2002). Metacognition and self-regulated comprehension. In A. Farstrup & J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (pp. 291–310). Newark, Del.: International Reading Instruction.

Pressley, M., & Dennis-Rounds, J. (1980). Transfer of a mnemonic keyword strategy at two age levels. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(4), 575–.

Pressley, M., & Levin, J. R. (1978). Developmental constraints associated with children’s use of the keyword method of foreign language learning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 26(1), 359–372.


Pressley, M., Levin, J. R., & Delaney, H. D. (1982). The mnemonic keyword method. Review of Educational Research, 52(1), 61–91.

Pressley, M., Levin, J., & Ghatala, E. (1984). Memory-strategy monitoring in adults and children. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23(2), 270–288.

Pressley, M., Levin, J. R., & McCormick, C. (1980). Young children’s learning of foreign language vo­cabulary: A sentence variation of the ­ keyword method. Contemporary ­ Educational Psychology, 5(1), 22–29.

Pressley, M., Levin, J., & Miller, G. (1981a). How does the keyword method affect vocabulary, comprehension, and usage? Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 213–226.

Pressley, M., Levin, J., & Miller, G. (1981b). The keyword method and children’s learning of foreign vocabulary with abstract meanings. Canadian Psychology, 35(3), 283–287.

Pressley, M., Samuel, J., Hershey, M., Bishop, S., & Dickinson, D. (1981). Use of a mnemonic technique to teach young children foreign-language­  vocabulary. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 6, 110–116.

Pressley, M., and Associates. (1990). Cognitive instruction that really improves children’s academic performance. Cambridge, Mass.: Brookline Books.


Chapter Nine — On Advance Organizers


David Ausubel worked on ways of structuring presentations so that reception learning would become active rather than passive. You can follow 30 years of thought and research in the citations below.

Ausubel, D. P. (1960). The use of advance organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful verbal material. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 267–272.


Ausubel, D. P. (1963). The psychology of meaningful verbal learning. New York: Grune & Stratton.

Ausubel, D. P. (1968). Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New

`        York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Ausubel, D. P. (1980). Schemata, cognitive structure, and advance organizers: A reply to Anderson, Spiro, and Anderson. American Educational Research Journal, 17(3), 400–404.

Ausubel, D. P., & Fitzgerald, J. (1962). Organizer, general background, and antecedent learning variables in sequential verbal learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 53, 243–249.

On of Ausubel’s first reports.

Barnes, B. R., & Clausen, E. U. (1973). The effects of organizers on the learning of structured anthropology materials in the elementary grades. Journal of Experimental Education, 42, 11–15.

Barnes, B. R., & Clausen, E. U. (1975). Do advance organizers facilitate learning? Recommendations for further research based on an analysis of 32 studies. Review of Educational Research, 45(4), 637–659.

Barnes and Clausen pointed out that the effects of advance organizers can be small and engaged in a dialog with Ausubel and others over the question of the efficacy of organizers.

Barron, R. R. (1971). The effects of advance organizers upon the reception, learning, and retention of general science concepts. (DHEW Project No. IB-030.) ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 061 554.

This paper reports a nice study – one of the first independent studies whose findings supported Ausubel’s theory. Importantly focussed on concepts and looked to the long term effects rather than short-term only.

Clauson, E. V., & Barnes, B. R. (1973). The effects of organizers on the learning of structured anthropology materials in the elementary grades. Journal of Experimental Education, 42, 11–15.

See, Clausen and Rice, below.


Clauson, E. V., & Rice, M. G. (1972). The changing world today. (Anthropology Curriculum Project Publication No. 72-1.) Athens: University of Georgia.

A wonderful project – teaching primary students the concepts of culture and cultural transmission, among others.

Lawton, J. T. (1977a). Effects of advance organizer lessons on children’s use and understanding of the causal and logical “Because.” Journal of ­ Experimental Education, 46(1), 41–46.

Nicely moved the research to higher-order outcomes.

Lawton, J. T. (1977b). The use of advance organizers in the learning and retention of logical operations in social studies concepts. American Educational Research Journal, 14(1), 24–43.

And, here, an even higher order outcome – accelerating cognitive perceptions.

Lawton, J. T., & Wanska, S. K. (1977a). Advance organizers as a teaching strategy: A reply to Barnes and Clawson. Review of Educational Research, 47(1), 233–244.

Lawton, J. T., & Wanska, S. K. (1977b, Summer). The effects of different types of advance organizers on classification learning. American Educational Research Journal, 16(3), 223–239.

Here is a major contribution. Describes types of organizers and organizes the research to determine what can be expected from each type.

Lucas, S. B. (1972). The effects of utilizing three types of advance organizers for learning a biological concept in seventh grade science. Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University.

Luiten, J., Ames, W., & Ackerson, G. A. (1980). A meta-analysis of the effects of advance organizers on learning and retention. American Educational Research Journal, 17, 211–218.

Mayer, R. F. (1979). Can advance organizers influence meaningful learning? Review of Educational Research, 49(2), 371–383.


Romberg, T. A., & Wilson, J. (1970). The effect of an advance organizer, cognitive set, and postorganizer on the learning and retention of written materials. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Minneapolis, Minn.

Stone, C. L. (1983). A meta-analysis of advance organizer studies. Journal of Experimental Education, 51(4), 194–199.

A good place to begin when trying to get a clear idea about the effects of organizers.


Chapter Ten – Inquiry Training

Elefant, E. (1980). Deaf children in an inquiry training program. Volta Review, 82, 271–279.

Ivany, G. (1969). The assessment of verbal inquiry in elementary school science. Science Education, 53(4), 287–293.

Collins, K. (1969). The importance of strong confrontation in an inquiry model of teaching. School Science and Mathematics, 69(7), 615–617.

Schrenker, G. (1976). The effects of an inquiry-development program on elementary schoolchildren’s science learning. Ph.D. thesis, New York University.


Part IV — On Social Models

          On Organizational Development

During WWII social psychology, particularly organizational development, experienced a burst of energy. The dynamics of groups received considerable attention as did ways of improving group processes and behavior in organizations. Group therapies emerged, partly because there were not enough therapists to deal one-on-one with the problems of returning servicemen and their families. Action research in education developed between 1940 and 1960. Although teaching through democratic process had been around for decades, the current movement toward cooperative learning had its origins in the post WWII movements. The National Training Laboratory was established and experiences there influenced many educators and organizational development practitioners. In industrial applications, many American firms were not thrilled by the idea of collaborative leadership, and Edward Deming took the large-scale applications to Japan with considerable effect. The International Association for the Study of Cooperation in Education is an ongoing global community. Consider joining it.


Antil, L., Jenkins, J., Wayne, S., & Vadasy, P. (1998). Cooperative learning: Prevalence, conceptualizations, and the relation between research and practice. American Educational Research Journal, 35(3), 419–454.

A nice review, particularly because it looks at the various models of cooperative learning and how well practice follows concepts and research.

Bradford, L. P., Gibb, J. R., & Benne, K. D. (Eds.). (1964). T-Group theory and laboratory method. New York: Wiley.

One of the early and clearest explanations of the training of groups and what that training offers to group functioning and organizational growth.

Bennis, W. G., & Shepard, H. A. (1964). Theory of group development. In W. G. Bennis, K. D. Benne, & R. Chin (Eds.), The planning of change: Readings in the applied behavioral sciences. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Links the work in group development to the intention to improve the social climate of organizations, schools and school districts being among  the possible settings.

Chin, R. & Benne, K. (1969). General strategies for effecting change in human systems. In Bennis, W., Benne, K., & Chin, R., eds. The Planning of Change. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, pp. 32-59.

Corey, S. (1953), Action Research to Improve School Practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

Lewin, K. (1947). Resolving SocialConflicts. New York: Harper and Row.


Sharan, S. (1990). Cooperative learning: Theory and research. New York: Praeger.

A thorough exposition. Good for the present day.


Sharan, S., & Shaulov, A. (1990). Cooperative learning, motivation to learn, and academic achievement. In S. Sharan (Ed.), Cooperative learning: Theory and research (pp. 173–202). New York: Praeger.

One of the interesting concepts is that cooperative learning moves motivation from the extrinsic to the intrinsic, resulting in increases in students’ ability to direct their own behavior and lessening the problems inherent in extrinsic reward strategies.

Sharan, S., Slavin, R., & Davidson, N. (1990). The IASCE: An agenda for the 90’s. Cooperative Learning, 10, 2–4.

Three of the four major exponent organizations for cooperative learning and look to the future. Still good today.


Chapter Eleven — Partners In Learning Positive Interdependence


Bonsangue, M. (1993). Long term effects of the Calculus Workshop Model. Cooperative Learning, 13(3), 19–20.

One of the most dramatic illustrations of what cooperative learning can accomplish.


Cook, L., & Cook, E. (1954). Intergroup education. New York: McGraw-Hill.

A historic book. Deals particularly with the processes of uniting people in diverse groups.


Cook, L., & Cook, E. (1957). School problems in human relations. New York: McGraw-Hill.

The Cooks attempted to provide strategies for improving human relations in schools. Fifty-six years later it is still relevant – and the human relations problems may be even more severe rather than less because of lack of attention and expert intervention.

Cooper, L., Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., & Wilderson, F. (1980). The effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic experiences on interpersonal ­ attraction among heterogeneous peers. Journal of Social Psychology, 111(1) 243–252.

The title here speaks for itself.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L., Mathes, P., & Simmons, D. (1997). Peer-assisted learning strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 34(1), 174–206.

A basic presentation.

Johnson, D. and Johnson, R. An Educational Psychology Success Story: Social Interdependence Theory and Cooperative Learning. Educational Researcher 2009; 38(5); pp. 365-379

The Johnsons’ most recent summary of their models and studies. This one speaks to the extreme “gold standard” advocates by point ing out  how much work has been done in cooperative learning that  meets that standard.

Sharan, S. (1980). Cooperative learning in small groups: Recent methods and effects on achievement, attitudes, and ethnic relations. Review of Educational Research, 50(2), 241–271.

As always, the Israeli group combines innovative and even daring projects with solid evaluations and research.

Sharan, S., & Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. (1980a). Academic achievement of elementary school children in small group versus whole-class instruction. Journal of Experimental Education, 48(2), 120–129.

Another title that annotates the article.

Urdan, T., Midgley, C., and Anderman, E. (1998). The role of classroom goal structure in students’ use of self-handicapping strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 35(1), 101–102.

A warning about how many students handicap themselves and how much evidence there is that integrative teaching/learning models reduce self-destruction.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1974). Instructional goal structure: Cooperative, competitive, or individualistic. Review of Educational Research, 44, 213–240.

Kagan, S. (1990). Cooperative learning resources for teachers. San Juan Capistrano, Calif.: Resources for Teachers.

Madden, N. A., & Slavin, R. E. (1983). Cooperative learning and social ­ acceptance of mainstreamed academically handicapped students. Journal of Special Education, 17, 171–182.

Qin, Z., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1995). Cooperative versus competitive efforts and problem solving. Review of Educational Research, 65(2), 82–102.

Stevens, R. J., & Slavin, R. E. (1995). The cooperative elementary school: Effects on students’ achievement, attitudes, and social relations. American Educational Research Journal, 32(2), 321–351.

Wentzel, K. (1991). Social competence at school: Relation between social ­ responsibility and academic achievement. Review of Educational Research, 61(1), 1–24.

Young, D. (1971). Team learning: An experiment in instructional method as related to achievement. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 8, 99–103.

Ziegler, S. (1981). The effectiveness of cooperative learning teams for increasing cross-ethnic friendship: Additional evidence. Human Organization, 40, 264–268.


Chapter Twelve — Group Investigation

This is the major contemporary democratic/inquiry model of teaching, with citizenship, inductive/inquiry processes, and personal growth studied together. We begin here with Herb Thelen’s major books. Education and the Human Quest is the classic description of the rationale and process of Group Investigation.


Thelen, H. (1954). Dynamics of groups at work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Thelen, H. (1960). Education and the human quest. New York: Harper & Row.

Thelen, H. (1981). The classroom society: The construction of education. N.Y.: Halsted Press.

Bruce, W. C., & Bruce, J. K. (1992). Learning social studies through discrepant event inquiry. Annapolis, Md.: Alpha Press.

Follows Thelen’s advice to open investigations with something that puzzles the students.

Sharan, S., & Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. (1980b). A group investigation me­thod of cooperative learning in the classroom. In S. Sharan, P. Hare, C. Webb, & R. Hertz-Lazarowitz (Eds.), Cooperation in education (pp. 14–46). Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press.

Digs into the dynamics of the model.

Sharan, S., & Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. (1982). Effects of an instructional change program on teachers’ behavior, attitudes, and perceptions. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 18(2), 185–201.

Used group investigation as the content of a professional development that had a significant impact on the beliefs and thoughts of teachers.

Sharan, S., & Shachar, H. (1988). ­Language and learning in the cooperative classroom. New York: Springer-Verlag.

A classic study. Large academic and social effects with students representing a wide range of SES and ethnic backgrounds.

Chamberlin, C., & Chamberlin, E. (1943). Did they succeed in college? New York: Harper & Row.

An impressive  study comparing students from Progressive Education Association High Schools matched with students from more or less traditional high schools in terms of how did they do in college.  Hint  — the study was undertaken because  innovative high schools, generally  following  the  Deweyan  collaborative//inquiry  mode, were  under constant attack  by conservatives and fearful parents.  General finding – not to worry.  The  students from  the Progressive Schools did just fine and, in a number of areas, did significantly better in college.

Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. (1993). Using group investigation to enhance Arab-Jewish relationships. Cooperative Learning, 11(2), 13–14.

The title says it all – a project carried out on the West Bank.

Huhtala, J. (1994). Group investigation structuring an inquiry-based curriculum. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.

Useful because of its clear connection to school curriculum.


Chapter Thirteen — Studying Values through Role-Playing

We begin with two of the Shaftel’s books. They have not been surpassed in either the rationale for role playing or effective processes.

Shaftel, F., & Shaftel, G. (1967). Role playing of social values: Decision making in the social studies. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Shaftel, F., & Shaftel, G. (1982). Role playing in the curriculum. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Chesler, M., & Fox, R. (1966). Role-playing methods in the classroom. Chi­cago: Science Research Associates.

A straightforward handbook.


Moral Development

Adkins, D. C., Payne, F. D., & O’Malley, J. M. (1974). Moral development. In F. N. Kerlinger & J. B. Carroll (Eds.), Review of research in education. Itasca, Ill.: Peacock.

A thoughtful paper on the nature of moral development.

Kohlberg, L. (1966). Moral education and the schools. School Review, 74, 1–30.

Larry Kohlberg took off from Piaget’s developmental theory to generate not only a solidly-based framework for looking at moral development but a series of propositions about how to elevate moral development – the move from self-centered to complex morality.


Kohlberg, L. (1976). The cognitive developmental approach to moral education. In D. Purpel & K. Ryan (Eds.), Moral education…It comes with the territory. Berkeley, Calif.: McCutchan.

A summary of Kohlberg’s position.

Kohlberg, L. (Ed.). (1977). Recent research in moral development. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Using tasks involving moral issues, Kohlberg worked on the development of a map of development and presented some evidence about how to bring about growth in moral complexity and civic behavior. See our Chapter Twenty, especially the idea of generating optimal mismatch as per Harvey, Hunt, and Schroeder (1966).

Nucci, L. P. (Ed.). (1989). Moral development and character education Berkeley, Calif.: McCutchan.

Oliver, D., & Shaver, J. P. (1966/1974). Teaching public issues in the high school. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Oliver, D. W., & Shaver, J. P. (1971). Cases and controversy: A guide to teaching the public issues series. Middletown, Conn.: American Education Publishers.

Purpel, D., & Ryan, K. (Eds.). (1976). Moral education: It comes with the territory. Berkeley, Calif.: McCutchan.


Part V — On Personal Models

The  most prominent spokesperson for nondirective counseling was Carl Rogers, although a number of other scholar/practitioners have been prominent through the years. Karen Horney, Abraham Maslow, and Erik Erikson all spoke to both counseling and teaching. Fritz Perls and other were prominent through the 1970’s. Cornelius White’s review of studies from the late 1940’s to the present identifies many of the current researcher/practitioners. The government initiatives of the last dozen years have emphasized direct instructional methods and ignored the social, personal, and information-processing families of models. They actually espoused the kinds of direct teaching that were most prominent before the federal authorities  exercised their authority – one reason why the NCLB initiatives did not improve student learning while their “high stakes” testing had a negative effect on teacher morale and practice.

Neill, A. S. (1960). Summerhill. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Maslow, A. (1962). Toward a psychology of being. New York: Van Nostrand.

Schutz, W. (1967). Joy: Expanding human awareness. New York: Grove Press.

Schutz, W. (1982). Firo. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Schutz, W., & Turner, E. (1983). Body fantasy. Irvington, Ill.: Irvington Press.


Nondirective Teaching (Chapter Fourteen)

We begin with a couple of studies that took on the difficult task of ascertaining how nondirective practice affected student ability and achievement. By its very nature, personalistic practice varies with the client, requiring much effort from a researcher to determine the extent of the practice in each situation.

Aspy, D. N., & Roebuck, F. (1973). An investigation of the relationship between student levels of cognitive functioning and the teacher’s classroom behavior. Journal of Educational Research, 65(6), 365–368.

Aspy, D. N., Roebuck, F., Willson, M., & Adams, O. (1974). Interpersonal skills training for teachers. (Interim Report No. 2 for NIMH Grant No. 5PO 1MH 19871.) Monroe: Northeast Louisiana University.

Roebuck, F., Buhler, J., & Aspy, D. (1976). A comparison of high and low levels of humane teaching/learning conditions on the subsequent achievement of students identified as having learning difficulties. (Final Report: Order No. PLD 6816-76 :

the National Institute of Mental Health.) Denton: Texas Woman’s University Press.

Roberts, J. (1969). Human relations training and its effect on the teaching-learning process in social studies. (Final Report.) Albany: Division of Research, New York State Education Department.

Carl Rogers was the major spokesman for several decades and his books are  important to understanding rationale and process. If you have not read him before,  we suggest the last one because it is devoted entirely to education and there was a great deal of experience with “encounter groups” and nondirective teaching between 1955 and 1980 so Rogers could reflect on it.

Rogers, C. (1961). On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Rogers, C. (1969). Freedom to learn. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.

Rogers, C. (1971). Client centered therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Rogers, C. (1981). A way of being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Rogers, C. (1982). Freedom to learn in the eighties. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.

Ellis, A., & Harper, R. (1975). A new guide to rational living. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

One of the major theorist/practitioners whose stance that therapy (read teaching) is to help the patient (read student) help themselves.

Fromm, E. (1941). Escape from freedom. New York: Farrar & Rinehart.

Eric Fromm was and is one of the most influential thinkers in therapy and education.

Fromm, E. (1955). The sane society. New York: Rinehart.

A loving society is a sane society.

Fromm, E. (1956). The art of loving. New York: Harper.

Probably this is where you want to start. A remarkably short and direct book that provides much help to parents and teachers everywhere.

Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-Centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research.vol.77, no.1. 133-143.

Jeffrey Cornelius-White’s investigation found 119 studies from 1948 to 2004 where effect sizes could be computed that, among them, had nearly 1500 findings and 355,325 students were included. Well-implemented personal models clearly meet the “gold standard.”

Perls, F. (1968). Gestalt therapy verbatim. Lafayette, Calif.: Real People Press.

Except for a short period gestalt therapy has been largely ignored by educators despite its obvious applicability to moral education and personal understanding.

Maslow, A. (1962). Toward a psychology of being. New York: Van Nostrand.


Schutz, W. (1967). Joy: Expanding human awareness. New York: Grove Press.

Schutz, W. (1982). Firo. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Schutz, W., & Turner, E. (1983). Body fantasy. Irvington, Ill.: Irvington Press.

Lundquist, G., & Parr, G. (1978). Assertiveness training with adolescents. Technical Journal of Education, 5, 37–44.


Chapter Fifteen – The Inner Person of Boys and Girls, Men and Women

A large literature on how to think about the inner lives of our students emphasizes how emotions, cognitions, and health interact at any given time in all of us. The titles mentioned in the introduction to the personal models and Chapter Fourteen are places to begin. Begin there and work your way up to the present. Or begin with

Sullivan, E. V. (1984). A critical psychology: Interpretations of the personal world. New York: Plenum.


Part VI — On Behavioral Models

Watson, Thorndike, Pavlov, and Skinner are the great-grandparents and grandparents of the behavioral school of thought about both therapy and education. Their books lay out the behavioral systems stance.

Pavlov, I. (1927). Conditioned reflexes: An investigation of physiological activity of the cerebral cortex (G. V. André, Trans.). London: Oxford University Press.

Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.

Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Skinner, B. F. (1968). The technology of teaching. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Skinner, B. F. (1971). Beyond freedom and dignity. New York: Knopf.

Skinner, B. F. (1978). Reflections on behaviorism and society. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Thorndike, E. L. (1911). Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative process in animals. In Psychological Review, 8(Suppl. 2). New York: Macmillan.

Thorndike, E. L. (1913). The psychology of learning: Vol. II. Educational psychology. New York: Teachers College.

Watson, J. B. (1916). The place of conditioned reflex in psychology. Psychological Review, 23, 89–116.

Watson, J. B., & Rayners, R. (1921). Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1–14.

Behavioral Humanism

Carl Thereon made a major contribution by reducing the role of external agents in the learning process and, rather, teaching patients and students how to take charge of the process of modifying their own behavior.

Thoresen, C. (Ed.). (1973). Behavior modification in education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bencke, W. N., & Harris, M. B. (1972). Teaching self-control of study behavior. Behavior Research and Therapy, 10, 35–41.

The title annotates the article.

Mahoney, M., & Thoresen, C. (1972). Behavioral self-control-power to the person. Educational Researcher, 1, 5–7.

A compact treatment.

Tobias, S. (1993). Overcoming math anxiety. New York: Norton.

A self-help treatment.

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. (1994). Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 64(2), 363–423.

Cameron’s review takes on the interesting problem of moving from external rewards to internal control.

Wolpe, J., & Lazarus, A. (1966). Behavior therapy techniques: A guide to the treatment of neuroses. Oxford: Pergamon Press, Inc.

Wolpe, J., & Wolpe, D. (1981). Our useless fears. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.


Chapter SixteenExplicit Instruction on Comprehension in Reading and Composing when Writing

Beatty, A., Reese, C., Persky, H., & Carr, P. (1996). N.A.E.P. 1994 U.S. history report card. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education.

Relevant here because learning about history depends so much on reading comprehension.

Duke, N., & Pearson, P. D. (undated – probably about 2000). Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. East Lansing: College of Education, Michigan State University.

Part of the rationale-building for the explicit teaching of comprehension.

Gaskins, I., & Elliot, T. (1991). Implementing cognitive strategy instruction across the school. Cambridge, Mass.: Brookline Books.

Irene Gaskins is a first-rate scholar and developer. A fine leader of the field.

Englert, C. & Raphael, T. (1989). Developing successful writers through cognitive strategy instruction. In Brophy, J.(ed). Advances in Research in Teaching.  Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press, 105-151.

Englert, C. S., Raphael, T. E., Anderson, L. M., Anthony, H. M., & Stevens, D. D. (1991). Making strategies and self-talk visible: Writing instruction in regular and special education classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 28(2), 337–372.

Hillocks, G. (1987). Synthesis of research on teaching writing. Educational Leadership, 44(8), 71–82.

A massive review. The result is convincing evidence that that inductive/inquiry approaches to the teaching of writing produce better results in quality of writing – including workmanship – than do the common practices of presenting and enforcing rules. Another finding is that there needs to be a lot of practice. Sporadic practice or just generating a few long papers in a year is just insufficient. Daily writing is preferred.

Quellmalz, E. S., & Burry, J. (1983). Analytic scales for assessing students’ expository and narrative writing skills. (CSE Resource Paper No. 5.) Los Angeles: Center for the Study of Evaluation, Graduate School of Education, University of California at Los Angeles.

          On Reciprocal Teaching

Alfasi, M. (1998). Reading for meaning: The efficacy of reciprocal teaching in fostering reading comprehension in high school students in remedial reading classes. American Educational Research Journal, 35(2), 309–332.

Brown, A. (1985). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension strategies (Technical Report No. 334). Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading.

Brown, A., & Palincsar, A. (1989). Guided, cooperative learning individual knowledge acquisition. In L. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction (pp. 393–451). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Brown, A. L. (1995). Guided discovery in a community of learners. In K. McGilly (Ed.), Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive theory and classroom practice (pp. 229–270). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT/Bradford Press.


Chapter Seventeen — Mastery Learning

Here we celebrate Benjamin Bloom’s massive contribution to educational research and practice.

The first three items lead to the concept of mastery learning and the relationship of schooling to individual differences.

Bloom, B. S. (1981). The new direction in educational research and measurement: Alterable variables. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Los Angeles.

Bloom, B. S. (1982). Human characteristics and school learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Bloom, B. S. (1971). Mastery learning. In J. H. Block (Ed.), Mastery learning: Theory and practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Bloom, B. S., et al. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: McKay.

The taxonomy is the standard for classifying objectives according to the cognitive processes inherent in them.


The next two pick up directly on a criterion for selecting curricular and instructional alternatives. First, to attempt to equal or exceed what one-to-one tutoring can accomplish. Second and related Bloom and John Carroll deal with the effect that allotted time has on achievement.


Bloom, B. S. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Leadership, 41, 4–17.

Bloom, B. S. (1974). Time and learning. American Psychologist, 29, 682–.

Carroll, J. B. (1963). A model of school learning. Teachers College Record, 64, 722–733.

Carroll, J. B. (1971). Problems of measurement related to the concept of learning for mastery. In J. H. Block (Ed.), Mastery learning: Theory and practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Carroll, J. B. (1977). A revisionist model of school learning. Review of Educational Research, 3, 155–167.

Block, J. W. (1971). Mastery learning: Theory and practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Block was a major disseminator of the Bloom/Block version of mastery learning.

Block, J. W., & Anderson, L. W. (1975). Mastery learning in classrooms. New York: Macmillan.

Kulik, C. C., Kulik, J. A., & Bangert-Drowns, R. L. (1990). Effectiveness of mastery learning programs: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 60, 265–299.

Levy, D. V., & Stark, J. (1982). Implementation of the Chicago mastery learning reading program at inner-city elementary schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.


          The overall picture

Anderson, L. W., Scott, C., & Hutlock, N. (1976). The effect of a mastery learning program on selected cognitive, affective, and ecological variables in grades 1 through 6. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.

Particularly important is the inclusion of several dependent variables rather than simply looking at whether certain content was learned.


Arlin, M. (1984). Time variability in mastery learning. American Educational Research Journal, 21(4), 103–120.

Arlin, M., & Webster, J. (1983). Time costs of mastery learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75(3), 187–196.

Arlin’s study linked mastery learning directly to Carroll’s formulation.

Bangert, R. L., & Kulik, J. A. (1982). Individualized systems of instruction: A meta-analysis of findings in secondary schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New

And, here is a nice early meta-analysis of the effects of individualized, mastery-oriented instruction in secondary schools which are often neglected in studies of instruction that cross curriculum areas


Chapter Eighteen — Direct Instruction

Bandura is a major formulator of social learning theory.

Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Bandura, A. (1971b). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning.

Bandura, A., & Walters, R. (1963). Social learning and personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Becker, W. (1977). Teaching reading and language to the disadvantaged—What we have learned from field research. Harvard Educational Review, 47, 518–543.

Becker’s work is well grounded in social learning theory, but his accomplishment is in the development and implementation of direct instruction programs.

Becker, W., & Carnine, D. (1980). Direct instruction: An effective approach for educational intervention with the disadvantaged and low performers. In B. Lahey & A. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in child clinical psychology (pp. 429–473). New York: Plenum.

Becker, W., Engelmann, S., Carnine, D., & Rhine, W. (1981). In W. R. Rhine (Ed.), Making schools more effective. New York: Academic Press.

Becker, W., & Gersten, R. (1982). A followup of follow through: The later effects of the direct instruction model on children in the fifth and sixth grades. American Educational Research Journal, 19(1), 75–92.

Individually Prescribed Instruction. (1966). Unpublished manuscripts. Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools.

Lindvall, C. M., & Bolvin, J. O. (1966). The project for individually prescribed instruction. Oakleaf Project. Unpublished manuscript. Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh.

Scanlon, R., & Brown, M. (1969). In-service education for individualized instruction. Unpublished manuscript. Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools.

Meyer, L. (1984). Long-term academic effects of the direct instruction project follow through. Elementary School Journal, 84, 380–394.

Taber, J., Glaser, R., & Halmuth, H. S. (1967). Learning and programmed instruction. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.

White, W. A. T. (1986). The effects of direct instruction in special education: A meta-analysis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Oregon.


          On Disadvantaged Students

Bereiter, C., & Englemann, S. (1966). Teaching the culturally disadvantaged child in the preschool. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Bereiter, C., & Kurland, M. (1981–82). Were some follow-through models more effective than others? Interchange, 12, 1–22.


          On Simulation in Education

Boocock, S. S., & Schild, E. (1968). Simulation games in learning. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage.

Simulation is a form of direct instruction. Readers may be surprised to learn how many simulations were available 45 years ago. Implementation has been a major problem that we lay at the door of “too few Professional Learning Opportunities.”

Properly-designed simulations can be very effective even in complex skill areas like driving an automobile and flying an airplane.

The digital era has spawned quite a number (for example, browse to SIM CITY – first appeared in 1985 and has been enhanced remarkably).  Remember that not all games are real simulations.


Part VII —  The Conditions of Learning, Conceptual Development

and the Optimal Mismatch

Gerbner, G. (1987). Science on television: How it affects public con ceptions. Issues in Science and Tech­nology 3(2), 109–115.

The Annenberg Center (Think Saturday Evening Post and Ladies Home Journal)  at  the University of Pennsylvania conducts research and generates policy alternatives on media. Here is an example.

Goffman, I. (1986). Gender advertisements. New York: Harper.

Goffman’s analysis comes here because his inquiries are parallel to those of  Gerbner and his colleagues.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

The very popular view of capacities in humans.

Giese, J. R. (1989). The progressive era: The limits of reform. Boulder, Colo.: Social Science Education Consortium.

A fine and thoughtful look at the Progressive (read Liberal) attempts to reform policy-making and educational practice.

Glade, M. E., & Giese, J. R. (1989). Immigration, pluralism, and national identity. Boulder, Colo.: Social Science Education Consortium.

Another thoughtful piece looking at our melting pot as it evolves.

Glaser, R. (Ed.). (1962). Training research and education. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Bob Glaser and his colleagues used the needs of WWII to establish training research as a field.  His applications to K-12 education are exemplary.

Glass, G. V. (1975). Primary, secondary, and meta-analysis of research. Educational Researcher, 7(3), 33–50.

Glass developed the concept of effect-size – a standardized measure of the impact of educational and psychological treatments (models). The statistic enables different studies using different measures to be analyzed together, providing a way of accumulating the body of research studies in a given area (such as teaching reading in kindergarten) so that the overall impact can be estimated. A very important achievement.

Goodlad, J. (1984). A place called school. New York: McGraw-Hill.

A leader in curricular thought for fifty years, Goodlad put it all together in this very thoughtful book on what schooling might be. Among other recommendations, he suggests that schools be no larger than about 400 students.

Goodlad, J., & Klein, F. (1970). Looking behind the classroom door. Worthington, Ohio: Charles A. Jones.

The 1960’s had been a very active time for the development of innovations in curriculum and instruction. Goodlad and Klein took a look at the teaching practices of a good-sized sample of teachers, asking whether they were using the innovations. Few were. This study was a wakeup call for the fields of school improvement and professional learning. Several of us were stimulated to conduct research on how teachers learn and to develop more effective designs for professional development when teachers were unfamiliar with developing models of teaching and curriculum.

Hullfish, H. G., & Smith, P. G. (1961). Reflective thinking: The method of education. New York: Dodd, Mead.

A solid rationale for inductive inquiry and reflective thought as method.

Hunt, D. E., Butler, L. F., Noy, J. E., & Rosser, M. E. (1978). Assessing conceptual level by the paragraph completion method. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

International Reading Association and The National Association for the Education of Young Children. (1998).  Position Statement on Learning to Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children.  Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.

Oakes, J. (1986). Keeping track: How schools structure inequality. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

Oakes became one of the leaders in documenting how students from lower SES families are disadvantaged along with racial and ethnic and linguistic minorities.

She exposed how direct  tracking (assigning students to tracks where the previous highest achievers are placed in the same track combined  and the next highest are put in the  second track, and so on.  Combines with downgrading learning opportunities (teaching the lower tracks simpler content with simpler learning strategies) combine to hurt a great number of children. That 30 percent of students do not learn to read in the K-3 grades is a matter of official and unofficial policies.  If the seemingly poorer students are given the best content and approaches to learning they will turn out to achieve a lot more than predicted, feel a lot better about themselves, and head to the future with more tools and confidence.

Resnick, L. B. (1987). Education and learning to think. Washington, D.C.: Academic Press.

A stalwart researcher and developer, Lauren Resnick has always kept her eye on the real purposes of education, as learning to think and to develop better capacity to learn in the future.


Chapter Nineteen – Creating Curriculums: The Conditions of Learning

Gagné, R. (1965a). The conditions of learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

The classic book design of curriculum and instruction. Based on cognitive psychology.

Good, T., Grouws, D., & Ebmeier, H. (1983). Active mathematics teaching. New York: Longman.

Garan, E. (2002) Beyond the smoke and mirrors: a critique of the National Reading Panel report on phonics. In Allington, R. au/ed, 90-111.

Massialas, B., & Cox, B. (1966). Inquiry in social studies. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chapter Twenty — Expanding our Horizons: Making Discomfort Productive

Harvey, O. J., Hunt, D., & Schroeder, H. (1961). Conceptual systems and personality organization. New York: Wiley.

The basic book on conceptual systems theory and its potential applications.

Hunt, D. E. (1970b). A conceptual level matching model for coordinating learner characteristics with educational approaches. Interchange: A Journal of Educational Studies, 1(2), 1–31.

This paper and the two that follow lay out the concept of optimal mismatch – that growth occurs when tasks require a conceptual reach but not is the tasks are at the current level of development or performance or two far above that level. Thus the term, “optimal mismatch.”

Hunt, D. E. (1971). Matching models in education. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

Hunt, D. E. (1975a). The B-P-E paradigm in theory, research, and practice. Canadian Psychological Review, 16, 185–197.

Hunt, D. E., & Joyce, B. (1967). Teacher trainee personality and initial teaching style. American Educational Research Journal, 4, 253–259.

Hunt, D. E., & Sullivan, E. V. (1974). Between psychology and education. Hinsdale, Ill.: Dryden.

McKibbin, M., & Joyce, B. (1980). Psychological states and staff development. Theory into Practice, 19(4), 248–255.

Schroeder, H. M., Driver, M. J., & Streufert, S. (1967). Human information processing: Individuals and groups functioning in complex social situations. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Schroeder, H. M., Karlins, M., & Phares, J. (1973). Education for freedom. New York: Wiley.

Showers, B. (1980). Self-efficacy as a predictor of teacher participation in school decision-making. Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University.

Thelen, H. (1954). Dynamics of groups at work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Thelen, H. (1960). Education and the human quest. New York: Harper & Row.

Thelen, H. (1981). The classroom society: The construction of education. N.Y.: Halsted Press.


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